Best CPU Cooler For i9-12900K: Top Choices For Gamers [2024]

Written By Rakibul Hasan

Finding the best CPU cooler for the new Intel i9-12900K CPU can be

As a PC enthusiast, I can understand the situation. Selecting the perfect CPU cooler that meets all your needs is always challenging.

That’s why we extensively researched and tested the best cooler for gaming and high-performance productivity work. In our result, the ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB comes at the top regarding cooling.

Keep reading the following writings to learn about the alternatives and make your decision smoother.

Top 8 Best i9-12900K CPU Coolers

AwardCPU CoolerType
Best OverallARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGBLiquid Cooler
Best High-EndASUS ROG RYUO III 360 ARGBLiquid Cooler
Best Cooler With DisplayNZXT Kraken Z73 360mmLiquid Cooler
Best Budget AIODeepCool LT720 Liquid Cooler 360mmLiquid Cooler
Best Overall Air CoolerNoctua NH-D15 chromax.blackAir Cooler
Best Budget Air CoolerDeepCool AK620Air Cooler
Best Single Tower CoolerNoctua NH-U12AAir Cooler
Best ITX CoolerNoctua NH-L9i-17xxAir Cooler

The Intel Core i9 12900K is a 16-core, 24-thread monstrous CPU released in 2021. It features entirely new technology with a mix of efficiency and high-performance cores.

The CPU has a base TDP of 125W and a boost TDP of up to 241W. As you can guess, it needs more than average cooling to give you a sustainable and stable performance.

Based on its requirements, we’ve listed some of the best 360mm AIO and air coolers below. We’ve excluded the 240mm liquid cooler as it’s unsuitable for overclocking or handling the max TDP.

The top CPU coolers listed below will ensure you get the best performance from your shiny new CPU.

Here are the top 8 best 12th gen i9-12900K CPU coolers:

1. Editors Choice/ Best Overall: ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB


If you are looking for the overall best of the best, the ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB is the one to buy.

Key Specifications

Dimension: 398 (L) x 38 (W) x 120 (H) mm | Noise Level: 0.3 Sone | CFM: 48.8 | Maximum Fan Speed: 1800 RPM

  • »360mm liquid cooler.
  • »Customizable ARGB LEDs.
  • »38mm thick radiators.
  • »Very quiet VRM fan.
  • »No LED screen.

Why We Picked It

ARCTIC made a superb liquid cooling solution with the ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB. It excels in cooling, design, and airflow and has some extra features. In terms of CPU liquid cooling solution, it’s currently one of the best in the market.

In 2022, the ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB won the European Hardware Awards for the best liquid cooler. It has passed international quality control standards, and the performance and build quality prove its authenticity.

The liquid cooler supports various CPU sockets—LGA 1200, LGA 1700, AM4, and AM5, making it versatile for previous and next-gen builds.

The 36 ARGB LEDs along the fan’s hub and the transparent rotor give the liquid cooler a rich illumination. The advanced A-RGB Gen.2 technology and customizable LEDs help you personalize the lighting and give your own look.

The PWM and ARGB cables are integrated into the sheathing of the hoses, minimizing the visibility of the physical cable.

In our testing, when paired with an RTX 3080, the ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB maintained around 80°C at 21°C ambient temperature. The noise level was minimal, and we had no issue concentrating on intensive games!

And for the max TDP testing, we’ve nearly reached the 290W mark. It clearly shows the capability of ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB, making it a top choice for the overclocked i9-12900K.

The fan runs at a maximum of 1800 RPM, and the high-quality fan creates a massive static pressure that quickly cools down the PC.

Who It’s For

The ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB is for the PC enthusiast looking for the best AIO solutions for their overclocked Intel i9-12900K by keeping an aesthetic look in the cooler.

What We Liked Most

There is no doubt about the ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB performance. The most impressive thing we found in this cooler is its price-to-performance ratio. It’s an undisputed king in this budget segment and superior to more expensive AIO coolers.

What Needs to Be Considered

It’s quite a big liquid cooler and requires 2.5 inches of clearance for the radiator. So, you need to ensure the space and might need a larger PC case to accommodate it.


The ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB is cheaper than most liquid coolers but provides top-notch cooling performance and excellent support for the higher TDP or overclocked i9-12900K. If you’re looking for a top-of-the-line cooler, I would recommend the ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB for you.

2. Best High-End: ASUS ROG RYUO III 360 ARGB


The ASUS ROG RYUO III 360 ARGB is a high-end liquid cooler for the 12th gen i9-12900K with a black and white sleek look.

Key Specifications

Dimension: 399.5 x 120 x 30 mm | Noise Level: 36.45 dB | CFM: 70.07 | Maximum Fan Speed: 2200 ± 300 RPM

  • »Latest 8th gen Asetek pump.
  • »ASUS-exclusive Anime Matrix mini LED display.
  • »Very low noise output.
  • »Expensive for a liquid cooler.

Why We Choose It

When we first got our hands on the ASUS ROG RYUO III 360 ARGB, the first thing we noticed in the cooler was its premium and minimalistic design. The three 120mm fans come with ARGB technology and offer sufficient airflow.

The 8th gen Asetek pump with a 3-phase motor delivers higher flow and cools down the component very efficiently. The cable management is almost invisible, making the appearance more elegant.

The aluminum components and vacuum coating ensures high durability and lower noise level.

In our regular testing, the noise level was around 30 to 35 dB. But when we pushed the fan to its maximum capacity, it made 47 dB at 2200 RPM.

The cooling performance is also similar to the ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB. When the i9-12900K was in stock, the temperature was about 55 °C. And at the maximum pressure, the cooler could hold the temperature under 81 °C.

Now coming to the aesthetics, the ASUS ROG RYUO III 360 ARGB is the ultimate choice for RGB lovers. It comes with a small LED display that supports Anime Matrix LEDs. You can customize the settings and set your preferred appearance.

Who Its For

The ASUS ROG RYUO III 360 ARGB is for the user who seeks a premium look and the best performance. If you’re searching for a white version, it has the most elegant looking and best aesthetics cooler in the market.

What We Liked Most

The capability I liked most in the ASUS ROG RYUO III 360 ARGB is its max fan rotational speed. It can go up to 2200 RPM, which is higher than most AIO, and provides massive static pressure.

What Needs to Be Improved

Considering the performance and price ratio, it’s a bit more expensive than other liquid coolers in the market.


The ASUS ROG RYUO III 360 ARGB is a top-of-the-line liquid cooler with a mini LED display and ARGB technology in the market. The build quality and max TDP make it one of the most reliable in the current cooling market.

3. Best Cooler With Display: NZXT Kraken Z73


If you are looking for a liquid cooler with a customizable LED display, the NZXT Kraken Z73 is the best choice.

Key Specifications

Dimension: 393.7 x 120.65 x 54.0 mm | Noise Level: 36 dB | CFM: 73.11 | Maximum Fan Speed: 2,000 ± 300 RPM

  • »Excellent cooling capabilities.
  • »36” LCD screen capable of showing 24-bit color.
  • »Customizable display with intuitive NZXT CAM controls.
  • »Expensive as a liquid cooler.

Why We Picked It

The black NZXT Kraken Z73 has a minimalistic design and sleek look, providing a new generation of liquid cooling performance. It’s armed with three powerful pumps that control the temperature strikingly.

The aluminum and rubber with nylon sleeves provide good durability to the NZXT Kraken Z73 and ensure the best thermal solutions.

In average usage, the temperature stays between 50 to 60 °C, and the noise level is at 30 to 35 dB. But when we did a stress test with the Cinebench R23 and ran the fan at 2000 RPM, the temperature was touching 80 °C and making a little more noise.

But if I talk about its LCD, it’s just beautiful. The true 24-bit color represents the CPU/ GPU temperature or can be customized with personalized GIFs.

Unfortunately, the base Z73 version doesn’t have an RGB setup. But you can get the RGB version and all its functionalities by paying some extra bucks.

Who Its For

The NZXT Kraken Z73 is for the PC user who wants the best AIO cooling performance and a customizable display but doesn’t have priority in RGB facilities.

What We Liked Most

The 2.36” LCD screen in the NZXT Kraken Z73 has got our attention. The color accuracy is decent, and the customizable feature makes it worthy to include in a setup.

What Needs to Be Considered

The base version doesn’t have RGB functionalities. If you’re looking for an RGB version, you must pay extra or find an alternative.


The NZXT Kraken Z73 is one of the best liquid coolers with displays in the current market. The combination of fantastic performance and visuality makes it one of the perfect choices for the 12900K build.

4. Best Budget AIO: DeepCool LT720


Searching for the best bang for buck liquid cooler? Well, look no more! The DeepCool LT720 is a monster in the budget AIO segment but capable of competing with some high-end liquid coolers.

Key Specifications

Dimension: 402×120×27 mm | Noise Level: 32.9 dB | CFM: 85.85 | Maximum Fan Speed: 3100 RPM ± 10%

  • »Very strong cooling capacity.
  • »Can handle higher TDP.
  • »Affordable for a 360mm liquid cooler.
  • »It can be noisy when running at full speed.

Why We Chose It

After lighting up the DeepCool LT720, the first thing we noticed was its amazing multidimensional infinity mirror top cap. The multi-faceted geometric reflection gives a unique and whole new level of aesthetics.

The DeepCool LT720 is equipped with three FK120 fans. The 4th gen high-performance water pump maximizes the cooling performance, and its improved microchannel design ensures optimal coolant flow.

In our standard testing, the DeepCool LT720 has maintained a 50 to 60 °C temperature in AIDA64 testing with a noise level under 33 dB. But in the full blast, the LT720 rotates at 3100 RPM and maintains a temperature range of 75 to 80 °C.

Its staggering 85.85 CFM provides lots of positive pressure and instantly decreases the temperature. Comparing the performance with other AIOs in the market, the DeepCool LT720 provides much better results in cooling performance.

But sadly, there is no RGB in the FK120 fans. The only ARGB lighting you’ll find is on the cap, which changes color and illustrates multidimensional structures.

Who Its For

The DeepCool LT720 is for the PC enthusiast looking for the best performance AIO on an affordable budget and ready to sacrifice the RGB functionalities in the fan.

What We Liked Most

The most impressive thing we found while testing is its maximum rotational speed. It can rotate at a maximum of 3100 RPM, the highest of all the coolers we’ve tested so far.

What Needs to Be Considered

The only downside we’ve seen in the DeepCool LT720 is the lack of RGB fans. The model comes with a regular fan and doesn’t have an RGB variant.


The DeepCool LT720 is the best budget AIO with extreme cooling capacity that can give similar and sometimes better performance than high-end liquid coolers. If you’re thinking about the performance but also considering your pocket, I would definitely recommend the LT720 for your 12900K.

5. Best Overall Air Cooler: Noctua NH-D15


If you are an air cooling fan, you cannot go wrong with the Noctua NH-D15

Key Specifications

Dimension: 165 x 150 x 161 mm | Noise Level: 24.6 dB | CFM: 82.52 | Maximum Fan Speed: 1500 RPM

  • »140mm dual tower air cooler.
  • »2x NF-A15 140mm PWM fans.
  • »SecuFirm2 mounting system
  • »The massive dimension can leave less space for RAM.

Why We Picked It

The Noctua NH-D15 is a super powerful air cooler that goes toe to toe against the best liquid coolers.

Noctua is a veteran name in the CPU cooler industry. They produce some of the finest air coolers in the market. The Noctua NH-D15 is one of them.

The air cooler is huge with its dual tower design. With a 160mm height, it can be tight in some PC cases. So before anything, make sure your PC will fit this monster.

The cooling system on the CPU cooler is superb. The six heat pipes and the dual tower heatsink give the cooler an extensive surface area to dissipate heat.

The two NF-A15 140mm PWM fans are highly popular among PC enthusiasts for their excellent cooling capacity. They also excel at being silent and therefore are the perfect package.

Overall, with the performance of the Noctua NH-D15, there is nothing to worry about. It sits at the top league of CPU coolers easily.

The aesthetics of the CPU cooler is rather interesting. The version means that it has an all-black color scheme. The sleek CPU cooler has a premium look to it.

The dual-tower cooler has lower RAM clearance. However, using only one fan, you get up to 64mm of RAM clearance.

When we tested the Noctua NH-D15 with i9-12900K, it performed really well by keeping the temperature around 70 °C and noise level under 25 dB. The performance is solid and gives similar results to NZXT Kraken X63.

For a flagship CPU like the Intel Core i9 12900K, the Noctua NH-D15 is a perfect choice as an air cooler.

Who Its For

The Noctua NH-D15 edition is the perfect choice for the PC enthusiast looking for a powerful air cooler for their Intel Core i9-12900K to receive the best cooling performance.

What We Liked Most

One of the most impressive things we’ve found while testing the Noctua NH-D15 is its low noise level. It delivers minimal noise output even under heavy pressure and keeps it under 25 dB.

What Needs to Be Considered

The Noctua NH-D15 is bulky, and the 1320g weight can be a problem for your motherboard and other components.


The Noctua NH-D15 is a high-end air cooler in the current market and provides an upgrade from its predecessors. If you’re searching for an air cooler, it undoubtedly comes at the top of the list for cooling down the 12th gen Intel i9-12900K.

6. Best Budget Air Cooler: DeepCool AK620


Looking for a budget air cooler to pair with the Intel Core i9-12900K? The DeepCool AK620 is here to provide the required performance by keeping your pocket right.

Key Specifications

Dimension: 129 x 138 x 160 mm | Noise Level: 28 dB | CFM: 68.99 | Maximum Fan Speed: 1850 RPM ± 10%

  • »High-performance dual tower CPU cooler.
  • »Maximum heat dissipation power of 260W.
  • »Low noise output.
  • »Lack of RGB functionalities.

Why We Chose It

The twin tower layout DeepCool AK620 is one of the best value-for-money coolers with impressive CPU air cooling capabilities in the low-budget range. The pair of 120mm fans and six heat pipes provide an excellent result regarding heat dissipation.

Unfortunately, there’s no RGB lighting attached to the fans. So, you won’t find any aesthetic illumination from the cooler. But, the sleek black and minimalistic design is enough to attract everyone’s attention.

In an idle state, the AK620 maintains a 35 °C temperature. But when we tested it in AIDA64 at max capacity, the temperature rose to 82 °C.

With the temperature increase, the fan noise has risen too. At 100% PWM, the fan produces around 51 dB of noise, which sometimes irritates. But typically, it could keep the noise level under 30 dB in most average work.

The max TDP of DeepCool AK620 is 260W, which can quickly handle the overclocked i9-12900K, making it a top choice for PC lovers.

Who Its For

The DeepCool AK620 is for the PC enthusiast looking for a low-budget CPU cooler for their Intel Core i9-12900K. The price is very affordable and perfect for your budget build.

What We Liked Most

The most impressive part of the DeepCool AK620 is its value-to-performance ratio. The cooler is very cheap compared to other renowned air coolers but provides a neck-to-neck performance with the high ends.

What Needs to Be Considered

Usually, the DeepCool AK620 is quiet. But at heavy pressure, the noise may increase to 50 dB.


If you are searching for a budget but good-performing air cooler, the DeepCool AK620 is a green signal for your Intel i9-12900K. The price-to-performance ratio is splendid and can easily give a decent service in daily usage.

7. Best Single Tower Cooler: Noctua NH-U12A


The Noctua NH-U12A is one of the best-performing single-tower coolers for the Intel Core i9 12900K in the current market.

Key Specifications

Dimension: 158 x 125 x 112 mm | Noise Level: 22.6 dB | CFM: 60.09 | Maximum Fan Speed: 2000 RPM

  • »Single tower air cooler.
  • »Two NF-A12x25 PWM 120mm fans.
  • »Very good noise profile.
  • »Expensive compared to regular single-tower coolers.

Why We Picked It

The Noctua NH-U12A is a part of the award-winning NH-U12 series, offering 37% more surface area than the NH-U12S.

The powerful 2x NF-A12x25 PWM 120mm fans and seven heat pipes can easily outperform any 120mm single tower cooler and compete against a 140mm cooler.

The Noctua NH-U12A maintains a 27 °C temperature in stock and ambient temperature. But, when we did a stress test with an overclocked i9-12900K, we found 83 °C at full potential.

The noise level is also very impressive. At 100% PWM, the fan only produces 45 dB of noise output.

As a single-tower CPU cooler, Noctua NH-U12A does a fantastic job. But unfortunately, there’s no RGB lighting in the cooler. It also comes with a black version, which offers a more sleek and minimal appearance.

The numbers also surprised us when we compared the Noctua NH-U12A with others. It only falls behind 1-2 °C in the same test as its larger brother, Noctua NH-D15 and Noctua NH-D15S.

Who Its For

The Noctua NH-U12A is designed for people who want a similar performance to the best air cooler, Noctua NH-D15, but at an affordable price.

What We Liked Most

When testing the Noctua NH-U12A with the i9-12900K, it surprised us. The results were almost similar to the top-tier coolers and sometimes matched the results with the high-ends.

What Needs to Be Considered

Despite its performance, the Noctua NH-U12A is slightly expensive compared to other single-tower CPU coolers in the market.


If you are particularly looking for a single tower CPU cooler for your Intel 12th gen i9-12900K, choosing the best option from the market is the wisest choice. The Noctua NH-U12A is undoubtedly a high-performance air cooler and really worth your money.

8. Best ITX Cooler: Noctua NH-L9i-17xx


If you want to use the i9 12900K CPU in an ITX casing, the Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is the best choice for you.

Key Specifications

Dimension: 95 x 95 x 37 mm | Noise Level: 23.6 dB | CFM: 33.8 | Maximum Fan Speed: 2500 RPM

  • »1x NF-A9x14 slim 92mm fan included.
  • »Very low noise level.
  • »Small in size and perfect for ITX or SFF casing.
  • »The small space can’t reduce the temperature efficiently.

Why We Chose It

Noctua, a veteran name in the CPU cooler industry, has a CPU cooler for everyone. If you plan to use the beast i9 12900K CPU in an ITX case or an HTPC, the Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is the way to go. Let me explain why.

The Noctua NH-L9i-17xx has a minimal footprint of only 95x95mm. Together with a 37mm height, it is super compact and can easily fit into any ITX case.

You might ask, is the CPU cooler enough to cool down the 125W CPU?

The answer is yes. It is true that the cooling performance will not be comparable to the likes of Noctua NH-D15, but for the size, it punches way above its limit.

In fact, the Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is one of the few air coolers you can pair with the 12900K CPU in an ITX casing. The efficiency of the air cooler is incredible.

Moreover, the 92mm fan runs incredibly quietly. With only 23.6 dB of noise output, the Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is virtually inaudible. The PWM fan ensures it runs according to the temperature of the CPU and keeps the noise output minimum.

Regarding aesthetics, the Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is minimalistic and sleek, just like the other Noctua air coolers on the list.

Overall, everything about the Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is excellent, and for an ITX build, you cannot go wrong with this one. You will not get as much cooling performance as the other big coolers on the list, but that’s expected, given its size.

Who Its For

The Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is primarily for people using LGA 1700 sockets, for example, the 12900K user. It’s perfect for the ITX build and one of the best for the SFF casings.

What We Liked Most

Despite its size, the Noctua NH-L9i-17xx can run up to 2500 RPM, and that’s very impressive. It’s almost silent and doesn’t even make a noise in the quietest room.

What Needs to Be Considered

One of the common problems for ITX coolers is insufficient space for passing the airflow. The Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is not an exception and might spike to 80+ °C in heavy usage.


The Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is specially designed for the Intel LGA 1700 socket and SFF PC casings. If you are building an ITX PC with the i9-12900K, the Noctua NH-L9i-17xx is the only way to go.

How We Chose The Best CPU Cooler for Intel Core i9-12900K

We had to consider some factors while choosing the best CPU coolers for the 12th gen Intel Core i9-12900K. The 12900K is a top-end processor that produces much heat at extensive pressure.

The compatibility, cooling performance, cooler type, noise level, budget and other key elements come into consideration while picking the right CPU cooler.

To cool down the beast, we chose some top-of-the-line CPU coolers compatible with the socket and provided sufficient cooling performance by keeping the noise level and pricing within range.

Here are the factors we’ve considered while choosing the best cooler for i9-12900K:


The 12th gen Intel Core 19-12900K supports LGA1700 sockets. So, we picked the CPU coolers that are supported by the Intel LGA1700 socket.

Most high-end CPU coolers are compatible with the socket now-a-days. But sometimes, you must be extra cautious because some models have different versions for each socket.

For example, the Noctua NH-L9i doesn’t support LGA1700 sockets. So, we needed to pick the Noctua NH-L9i-17xx version, designed especially for the 12th gen Intel processors.

Cooling Performance

The base power of i9-12900K is 125W. But at full potential, it can go up to 241W. So, we picked CPU coolers that are capable of handling the produced heat and have a higher thermal design power (TDP) rating.

For example, the ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB has a maximum TDP of 290W, which can efficiently dissipate heat from an overclocked 12900K.

In addition, we’ve considered the number of heat pipes and fans a cooler consists of. We’ve also focused on the RPM, fan size, and CFM and provided the best coolers with extreme cooling abilities.

Air & Liquid Cooling

Generally, two types of coolers are available in the market: air and liquid. The difference between a liquid and an air cooler is massive.

The air cooler uses fans and heatsinks to dissipate heat, while liquid coolers use a combination of a pump, radiator, and fans to cool the CPU.

In terms of performance, the liquid coolers are better than the air. But they are pricey, and you might want to build a budget PC with the air cooler instead.

So, we’ve picked the best coolers from air and liquid and provided the details here to ease your pickings.

Fan & Radiator Size

Fan size is vital for the air coolers to dissipate the heat from the CPU more efficiently. The 120mm and 140mm fans are the most popular for their excellent airflow and static pressure capabilities.

Also, we kept in mind the clearance in a PC casing, so we picked both fan sizes for this list—for example, the Noctua NH-D15 for 140mm and Noctua NH-U12A for 120mm.

If you opt for a liquid cooler, you must consider the size of the radiator. The most popular for the liquid cooler are the 240mm, 2480mm, and 360mm radiators.

AIOs are intended for extensive pressure, so we’ve prioritized the 360mm liquid coolers for the i9-12900K.

Noise Level

The noise level is a vital factor when choosing a CPU cooler for a powerful processor. Under heavy load, the coolers may produce significant noise, which might be irritating during important tasks.

So, we’ve considered the point and provided CPU coolers that are typically quiet and produce less noise under intensive pressure than most CPU coolers.

Aesthetics & Build Quality

We’ve tried to list CPU coolers as aesthetically pleasing and made with good materials. The taste can vary from person to person.

So, we’ve listed both RGB and non-RGB CPU coolers for liquid and air coolers. Also, we’ve ensured the fan, heatsink, radiator, and tubes are made from top-class materials to give your i9-12900K the best heat dissipation performance.


When buying a CPU cooler, budget is an important factor. If you have enough budget, you can easily go for the best and most expensive AIO coolers in the market to receive the best cooling performance.

However, if you are searching for an affordable option, the above air cooler will adequately cool your Intel Core i9-12900K, keeping your budget minimum.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can I use Noctua NH-L9i for Intel Core i9-12900K?

No, the Noctua NH-L9i won’t work in i9-12900K as it doesn’t support LGA1700 sockets. You’ll need a Noctua NH-L9i-17xx version to make it work with an i9-12900K.

Does ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB have a mounting bracket for LGA1700?

The ARCTIC Liquid Freezer II 360 A-RGB Rev2 has a mounting bracket for the LGA1700 socket, but the Rev1 doesn’t.

Is higher CFM better for a CPU cooler?

Yes, a higher CFM is better for a CPU cooler with larger space in the casing, as it will bring more cool air and create positive pressure.

About The Author
Rakibul is a tech enthusiast. Since childhood, he has been fascinated by computers and smartphones and bestowed his soul on them. He often talks about new ideas and is completely enamored with technology, computers, and gaming. He enjoys doing research and loves to share his findings with others.

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